Preconception Marijuana Use and Pregnancy Outcomes (P18-033-19)
Sunni Mumford, Kerry Flannagan, Jeannie Radoc, Torie Plowden, Keewan Kim, Alexandra Purdue-Smithe, Jessica Zolton, Lindsey Sjaarda, Neil Perkins, Joshua Freeman, Zeina Alkhalaf, Victoria Andriessen, Robert Silver and Enrique Schisterman (June 2019)
Objectives: Marijuana is the most widely used and fastest growing drug in the United States, with legislation currently broadening legalization for both medical and recreational use. However, there are limited data evaluating associations with fecundity and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A few studies evaluating self-reported use suggest marijuana may not be harmful for pregnancy, yet there is a concern for underreporting due to stigma as marijuana is not universally legalized. Our aim was to examine the association between preconception marijuana use, using both self-reported and urinary levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and fecundability, live birth, and pregnancy loss. Conclusions: Women who screened positive for THC during preconception, or self-reported use during the past year had reduced fecundability, though no associations were observed with live birth or pregnancy loss. Further investigations are needed to determine what duration and dose of marijuana may negatively impact fecundability.
Self-reported Medical and Nonmedical Cannabis Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States
Nora D. Volkow, Beth Han and Wilson M. Compton (June 2019)
Cannabis use increased among pregnant women in the United States from 2002 to 2014. However, changes in cannabis use and frequency by trimester over time and national prevalence of medical cannabis use during pregnancy are unknown. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were examined to address these knowledge gaps. Data were from women aged 12 to 44 years who participated in the 2002-2017 NSDUH, a representative survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Collection of NSDUH data was approved by the institutional review board at RTI International. Data were collected by interviewers during personal visits. Oral informed consent was received from respondents. The annual mean weighted response rate of the 2002-2017 NSDUH was 63.6%. Although methods to assess nonresponse bias vary, NSDUH trends have been comparable with trends from other population surveys.
Recommendations From Cannabis Dispensaries About First-Trimester Cannabis Use
Dickson, Betsy, MD; Mansfield, Chanel, MPH; Guiahi, Maryam, MD, MSc; Allshouse, Amanda, A., MS; Borgelt, Laura, M., PharmD; Sheeder, Jeanelle, PhD; Silver, Robert, M., MD; Metz, Torri, D., MD, MS (May 2018)
To characterize recommendations given to pregnant women by Colorado cannabis dispensaries regarding use of cannabis products for nausea during the first trimester of pregnancy. early 70% of Colorado cannabis dispensaries contacted recommended cannabis products to treat nausea in the first trimester. Few dispensaries encouraged discussion with a health care provider without prompting. As cannabis legalization expands, policy and education efforts should involve dispensaries.
Marijuana use and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study
Wise LA, Wesselink AK, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Sørensen HT, Mahalingaiah S (March 2018)
The influence of marijuana use on human fertility has not been well studied. We evaluated the association between female and male use of marijuana and fecundability in Pregnancy Study Online, a prospective cohort of North American couples. In this preconception cohort study, there was little overall association between female or male marijuana use and fecundability.
Evaluation of Bisphenol A influence on endocannabinoid system in pregnant women
Monika ZbuckaKretowska, Robert Zbucki, Ewa Parfieniuk, Maciej Maslyk, Urszula Lazarek, Wojciech Miltyk, Jan Czerniecki, Slawomir Wolczynski, Adam Kretowski, Michal Ciborowski (March 2018)
The docking calculations of BPA and fatty acid amide hydrolase (enzyme degrading endocannabinoids, FAAH) indicated that it can act as a competitive inhibitor by blocking FAAH catalytic residues. In vitro study showed that BPA moderately inhibits FAAH activity (15% decrease for 200 ng mL-1 and almost 50% for 200 μg mL-1 of BPA). In the present study for the first time inhibitory potential of BPA on FAAH hydrolase is reported. Inhibition of FAAH may lead to a rise of plasma endocannabinoids level. BPA exposure and increased level of endocannabinoids are miscarriage risk factors. Based on obtained results it can be hypothesized that BPA may induce adverse pregnancy outcomes by acting on endocannabinoid system.
Evidence for CB2 receptor involvement in LPS-induced reduction of cAMP intracellular levels in uterine explants from pregnant mice: pathophysiological implications
Ana Inés Salazar, Alejandro Carozzo, Fernando Correa, Carlos Davio,Ana María Franchi (May 2017)
We found evidence for cannabinoid receptor type2 (CB2) involvement in LPS-induced increased prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) synthesis and diminished cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) intracellular content in uterine explants from early pregnant mice.
Endocannabinoid system and pregnancy
Fernando Correa, Manuel L Wolfson, Paula Valchi, Julieta Aisemberg and Ana María Franchi (August 2016)
The endocannabinoid system (eCS), is a complex system, comprising the main endogenous ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the biosynthetic and degrading enzymes. Cumulative evidence shows that the eCS plays an important role in reproduction, from egg fertilization to parturition. Therefore, alterations in this system, either by recreation/therapeutic use of cannabis or deregulation of the endogenous cannabinoids, might lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including retardation in embryo development, poor blastocyst implantation, inhibition of decidualization, miscarriage and compromised placentation.
The endocannabinoid system: A novel player in human placentation
M.A. Costa (March 2016)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) participates in distinct biological processes, including pain, inflammation, neuroprotection, and several reproductive events. In addition, an abnormal expression of ECS is associated with infertility and miscarriages. This manuscript will review and discuss the expression of ECS in normal and pathological human placentas, and the role of eCBs and THC in trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and function. The current evidence points towards a role of ECS in human placentation, shedding light on the contribution of the eCBs in the coordination of human placentation, and in the cellular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of cannabis consumption during pregnancy.
Endocannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events: a potential therapeutic target?
Mauro Maccarrone (June 2015)
Nearly 30 years after the discovery in 1964 of the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis (Cannabis sativa), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, its endogenous counterparts were discovered and collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs): N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in 1992 and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in 1995. Since then, intense research has identified additional eCBs and an ensemble of proteins that bind, synthesize and degrade them, the so-called eCB system. Altogether, these new compounds have been recognized as key mediators of several aspects of human pathophysiology, and in particular of female fertility.
Early diagnosis of miscarriage in human beings
Mauro Maccarrone, Herbert ValensiseAgro, Alessandro Finazzi (October 2001)
The present invention relates to a method for the diagnosis of miscarriage in female human beings based on the detection of the presence of the enzyme anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) active in blood cells and in particular in lymphocytes, and a diagnosis kit useful in the performance of said method.