Depression


Exploring the Association between Marijuana Use, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation

Najwa Mardini (September 2019)

The purpose of this study was to explore the association between marijuana use and a major depressive episode (MDE). Additionally, this study explored the potential link between marijuana use and suicidal ideation. Data for this study was obtained from the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), and participants were U.S. adults ages 18 and older. A cross-sectional study design was used, and a random sample of 108 participants was selected.The results of this study indicated that there was no significant association between marijuana use and experiencing an MDE (X2 (1) = .037, p = .847), and no association between marijuana use and suicidal ideation (X2 (1) = 5.15, p = .174). Additionally, alcohol use, cocaine use, ethnicity, gender, heroin use, methamphetamine use, and school attendance had no effect and did not modify the relationship between marijuana use and experiencing an MDE (X2 (13) =12.386, p = .496).

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Sari Goldstein Ferber, Dvora Namdar, Danielle Hen-Shoval, Gilad Eger, Hinanit Koltai, Gal Shoval, Liat Shbiro and Aron Weller (September 2019)

Mood disorders are the most prevalent mental conditions encountered in psychiatric practice. Numerous patients suffering from mood disorders present with treatment-resistant forms of depression, co-morbid anxiety, other psychiatric disorders and bipolar disorders. Standardized essential oils (such as that of Lavender officinalis) have been shown to exert clinical efficacy in treating anxiety disorders. As endocannabinoids are suggested to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety and bipolar disorders, Cannabis sativa, was suggested for their treatment. The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, modulating many functions. It is involved in mood and related disorders, and its activity may be modified by exogenous cannabinoids. CB1 and CB2 receptors primarily serve as the binding sites for endocannabinoids as well as for phytocannabinoids, produced by cannabis inflorescences. However, ‘cannabis’ is not a single compound product but is known for its complicated molecular profile, producing a plethora of phytocannabinoids alongside a vast array of terpenes. Thus, the “entourage effect” is the suggested positive contribution derived from the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Patient-reported use of medical cannabis for pain, anxiety, and depression symptoms: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Jesse Kosiba, Stephen Maisto and Joseph Ditre (June 2019)

Rationale: Certifications for medical cannabis are generally restricted to a small number of specific medical conditions, yet patients frequently report symptoms of pain, anxiety, and depression as reasons for use. This is a critical concern for researchers, healthcare providers, and policymakers, yet research in this area is currently obstructed by the lack of a focused review or empirical synthesis on patient-reported reasons for medical cannabis use. Conclusion: Findings are discussed with regard to possible explanations for current results, clinical considerations, and areas of future research that are needed to move the field forward.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Patterns of Marijuana Use and Health Impact: A Survey Among Older Coloradans

Hillary D. Lum, Kanika Arora, J. Alton Croker, Sara H. Qualls, Melissa Schuchman, Julie Bobitt, Gary Milavetz, and Brian Kaskie (June 2019)

The in-person or online survey was offered to community-dwelling older persons aged above 60 years. We assessed past-year marijuana use including recreational, medical, or both; methods of use; marijuana source; reasons for use; sociodemographic and health factors; and self-reported health. Of 274 respondents (mean age = 72.5 years, 65% women), 45% reported past-year marijuana use. Of these, 54% reported using marijuana both medically and recreationally. Using more than one marijuana method or preparation was common. Reasons for use included arthritis, chronic back pain, anxiety, and depression. Past-year marijuana users reported improved overall health, quality of life, day-to-day functioning, and improvement in pain. Odds of past-year marijuana use decreased with each additional year of age.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Electroconvulsive therapy enhances endocannabinoids in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with major depression: a preliminary prospective study

Laura Kranaster, Carolin Hoyer, Suna Su Aksay, Jan Malte Bumb, F. Markus Leweke, Christoph Janke, Manfred Thiel, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila, Alexander Sartorius  (March 2017)

Despite the lack of clinical data about the role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in affective disorders, preclinical work suggests that the ECS is relevant in both with regard to the etiology of depression as well as the mediation of antidepressant effects. We measured the intraindividual levels of the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the cerebrospinal fluid of 12 patients suffering from a major depressive episode before and after the antidepressant treatment by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). AEA was significantly elevated after ECT as compared to baseline. The AEA increase positively correlated with the number of individually performed ECT sessions.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Crosstalk between endocannabinoid and immune systems: a potential dysregulation in depression?

Emily Boorman, Zuzanna Zajkowska, Rumsha Ahmed, Carmine M. Pariante and Patricia A. Zunszain  (October 2015)

The eCB and immune systems have been individually associated with and implicated in pathogenic mechanisms of depression. Both systems tightly regulate the other’s activity. As such, a dysregulation in this crosstalk has potential to influence the onset and maintenance of this neuropsychiatric illness. However, few studies have investigated both systems and depression conjointly. This review highlights the demand to consider joint eCB-immune interactions in the pathoetiology of depression.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Atypical Neurotransmitters and the Neurobiology of Depression

Regiane Joca, Samia; Araujo Moreira, Fabricio; Wegener, Gregers  (October 2015)

The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoid signaling in the brain during the 1990s challenged the wellestablished criteria of classical neurotransmission. These transmitters are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons, and may act as a retrograde messenger on the presynaptic terminal, modulating neurotransmitter release. These unconventional signaling mechanisms and the important role as neural messengers have classified NO and endocannabinoids as atypical neurotransmitters. This review aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of NO- and endocannabinoid-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to the neurobiology of depression.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Depression: from Preclinical to Clinical Evidence

Vincenzo Micale, Katarina Tabiova, Jana Kucerova and Filippo Drago  (May 2015)

Data from preclinical and clinical studies have reported that a hypofunction of the endocannabinoid signaling could induce a depressive-like phenotype; consequently, enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling could be a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of depression. To this aim there have been proposed cannabinoid receptor agonists or synthetic molecules that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation. The latter ones do not induce the psychotropic side effects by direct CB1 receptor activation, but rather elicit antidepressant-like effects by enhancing the monoaminergic neurotransmission, promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and normalizing the hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, similarly as the standard antidepressants.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Chronic Stress Impairs α1-Adrenoceptor-Induced Endocannabinoid-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

Samir Haj-Dahmane and Roh-Yu Shen  (October 2014)

Alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) control the activity of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRn) serotonin (5-HT) neurons and play crucial role in the regulation of arousal and stress homoeostasis. However, the precise role of these receptors in regulating glutamate synapses of rat DRn 5-HT neurons and whether chronic stress exposure alters such regulation remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the impact of chronic restraint stress on α1-AR-mediated regulation of glutamate synapses onto DRn 5-HT neurons. We found that, in the control condition, activation of α1-ARs induced an inward current and long-term depression (LTD) of glutamate synapses of DRn 5-HT neurons.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.