Chronic Pain


Efficacy and safety of medicinal cannabis: results of the CaPRis study

Eva Hoch, Chris Friemel, Miriam Schneider, Oliver Pogarell, Alkomiet Hasan, Ulrich W. Preuss and CaPRis-Projektgruppe (June 2019)

The project “Cannabis: Potential and Risks: a Scientific Analysis” (CaPRis), which started in 2016, aimed at analyzing the potential of medicinal cannabis and the risks of recreational cannabis use. A search of systematic reviews (SRs) and randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in five international databases (publication date: 2006–2017). For the medical use of cannabis 16 SRs (of 186 RCTs) were included from a global search and nine further RCTs were comprised from a de novo search. All studies were methodologically assessed. Evidence for the efficacy of cannabis medicine (given as an adjunct to other medication) was found in patients with chronic pain and spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Benefits were also found for appetite stimulation, improvement of nausea, and weight gain in patients with cancer, HIV/AIDS or in palliative care.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Effectiveness and tolerability of THC:CBD oromucosal spray as add-on measure in patients with severe chronic pain: analysis of 12-week open-label real-world data provided by the German Pain e-Registry

Michael Ueberall, Ute Essner and Gerhard Mueller-Schwefe (June 2019)

Objective: To evaluate effectiveness, tolerability and safety of an oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as add-on treatment in patients with severe chronic pain (SCP). Conclusion: THC:CBD oromucosal spray proved to be an effective and well-tolerated add-on treatment for patients with elsewhere refractory chronic pain – especially of neuropathic origin.

Patterns of Marijuana Use and Health Impact: A Survey Among Older Coloradans

Hillary D. Lum, Kanika Arora, J. Alton Croker, Sara H. Qualls, Melissa Schuchman, Julie Bobitt, Gary Milavetz, and Brian Kaskie (June 2019)

The in-person or online survey was offered to community-dwelling older persons aged above 60 years. We assessed past-year marijuana use including recreational, medical, or both; methods of use; marijuana source; reasons for use; sociodemographic and health factors; and self-reported health. Of 274 respondents (mean age = 72.5 years, 65% women), 45% reported past-year marijuana use. Of these, 54% reported using marijuana both medically and recreationally. Using more than one marijuana method or preparation was common. Reasons for use included arthritis, chronic back pain, anxiety, and depression. Past-year marijuana users reported improved overall health, quality of life, day-to-day functioning, and improvement in pain. Odds of past-year marijuana use decreased with each additional year of age.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Medical Cannabis: Effects on Opioid and Benzodiazepine Requirements for Pain Control

Megan O’Connell, Megan Sandgren, Leah Frantzen, Erika Bower and Brian Erickson (May 2019)

There is currently little evidence regarding the use of medical cannabis for the treatment of intractable pain. Literature published on the subject to date has yielded mixed results concerning the efficacy of medical cannabis and has been limited by study design and regulatory issues. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of medical cannabis affects the amount of opioids and benzodiazepines used by patients on a daily basis.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Effects of cannabinoid administration for pain: A meta-analysis and meta-regression

Julio Yanes, Zach McKinnell, Meredith Reid, Jessica Busler, Michel, Jesse Michel, Melissa Pangelinan, Matthew Sutherland, Jarred Younger, Gonzalez, Raul Gonzalez and Jennifer Robinson (May 2019)

Chronic pain states have resulted in an overreliance on opioid pain relievers, which can carry significant risks when used long term. As such, alternative pain treatments are increasingly desired. Although emerging research suggests that cannabinoids have therapeutic potential regarding pain, results from studies across pain populations have been inconsistent. To provide meta-analytic clarification regarding cannabis’s impact on subjective pain, we identified studies that assessed drug-induced pain modulations under cannabinoid and corresponding placebo conditions. A literature search yielded 25 peer-reviewed records that underwent data extraction.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Pain Relief as a Motivation for Cannabis Use Among Young Adult Users With and Without Chronic Pain

Fales, Jessica L; Ladd, Benjamin O; Magnan, Renee E (February 2019)

Results revealed that approximately 40% of the sample met the criteria for chronic pain, and pain relief was their primary motivation for use. There were no differences between groups with respect to frequency of use or estimated potency of their preferred strains; however, users with chronic pain reported using a wider variety of administration methods and a greater quantity of cannabis with each use. Users with chronic pain also reported more extensive histories of use, with younger age at initiation and longer duration of regular use. Despite riskier consumption patterns, there were no between-group differences in negative consequences owing to use after controlling for gender and educational status.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Association of Cannabinoid Administration With Experimental Pain in Healthy Adults

Martin J. De Vita, MS; Dezarie Moskal, MS; Stephen A. Maisto, PhD; et al  (September 2018)

What is the association between acute cannabinoid administration and experimental pain reactivity in healthy adults? This systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 studies including 442 adults found that cannabinoid drugs were associated with modest increases in experimental pain threshold and tolerance, no reduction in the intensity of ongoing experimental pain, reduced perceived unpleasantness of painful stimuli, and no reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia. Cannabinoid analgesia may be largely driven by an affective rather than a sensory component. These findings have implications for understanding the analgesic properties of cannabinoids.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Cannabinoids and spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome refractory pain

Mondello E, Quattrone D, Cardia L, Bova G, Mallamace R, Barbagallo AA, Mondello C, Mannucci C, Di Pietro M, Arcoraci V, Calapai G  (September 2018)

This study aimed to evaluate pain and its symptoms in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) refractory to other therapies, treated with a combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in association with spinal cord stimulation (SCS). The results indicate that cannabinoid agonists (THC/CBD) can have remarkable analgesic capabilities, as adjuvant of SCS, for the treatment of chronic refractory pain of FBSS patients.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science

Eric P. Baron  (August 2018)

There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may assist in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential weapon in battling the opioid epidemic. Cannabis science is a rapidly evolving medical sector and industry with increasingly regulated production standards. Further research is anticipated to optimize breeding of strain‐specific synergistic ratios of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals for predictable user effects, characteristics, and improved symptom and disease‐targeted therapies.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort

Eric P. Baron, Philippe Lucas, Joshua Eades and Olivia Hogue  (May 2018)

Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis.




Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for cancer pain

Winfried Häuser, Patrick Welsch, Petra Klose, Lukas Radbruch and Mary-Ann Fitzcharles (May 2019)

A systematic literature search until December 2018 included CENTRAL, PubMed, SCOPUS and trial registers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating medical cannabis and/or pharmaceutical cannabinoids for pain control in cancer patients with a study duration of at least 2 weeks and a sample size of at least 20 participants per study arm were included. Clinical outcomes comprised efficacy (pain intensity, patient impression of improvement, combined responder, sleep problems, psychological distress, opioid maintenance and breakthrough dosage), tolerability (dropout rate due to adverse events) and safety (nervous system, psychiatric and gastrointestinal side effects; serious adverse events). The quality of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).



Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Cannabis for Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Survey of Prevalence and Effectiveness

Charity Johns and Mark Lachiewicz (May 2019)

Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a prevalent but difficult entity to treat. Cannabis has been shown to significantly improve pain in several populations. There have been no studies on cannabis use among women with CPP. We aim to examine the prevalence of cannabis use in patients with CPP and hypothesize that CPP patients report an improvement in their pain symptoms with cannabis use.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Outcomes Mandate National Integration With Cannabis as Medicine

Ryan O Lakin (OMNI Medical Services, LLC) (May 2019)

This study will utilize an anonymous novel online questionnaire to determine study participants' qualifying condition(s) for medical cannabis use, cannabis ingestion method, frequency of use, prescription drug use, and demographic information. Secondary factors will include evaluation of pain control, quality of life metrics, any adverse side effects from cannabis use, as well as changes in adjunctive treatments. Patients will be given medical cannabis recommendations and certifications commensurate with the state law in which the encounter occurs. The variations in mechanisms between the states for recommending, registering, certifying, and developing mandated treatment plans or doses will be adhered to; however, variations in state law and cannabis programs should not cause variation in the study design because the end-result is still the same with patients being treated with medical cannabis.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.