Effects of a Weight Loss Program on Metabolic Syndrome, Eating Disorders and Psychological Outcomes: Mediation by Endocannabinoids

Pataky Z.Carrard I.Gay V.Thomas A.Carpentier A.Bobbioni-Harsch E.Golay A.  (April 2018)

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on endocannabinoids, cardiometabolic and psychological parameters, eating disorders (ED) as well as quality of life (QoL) and to elucidate the role of endocannabinoids in metabolic syndrome (MS). Conclusion:Plasma PEA might play a role in metabolic improvement after weight loss. Even in subjects without weight loss, a multidisciplinary intervention improves psychological outcomes, ED, and QoL.

Cannabinoids in health and disease: pharmacological potential in metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation

Andrea Mastinu, Marika Premoli, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Simone Tambaro, Giuseppina Maccarinelli, Sara Anna Bonini  (March 2018)

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The use of different natural and/or synthetic preparations of Cannabis sativa is associated with therapeutic strategies for many diseases. Indeed, thanks to the widespread diffusion of the cannabinoidergic system in the brain and in the peripheral districts, its stimulation, or inhibition, regulates many pathophysiological phenomena. In particular, central activation of the cannabinoidergic system modulates the limbic and mesolimbic response which leads to food craving. Moreover, cannabinoid agonists are able to reduce inflammatory response. In this review a brief history of cannabinoids and the protagonists of the endocannabinoidergic system, i.e. synthesis and degradation enzymes and main receptors, will be described.

Polymorphism rs1761667 in the CD36 Gene Is Associated to Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism and Circulating Endocannabinoid Levels Distinctively in Normal Weight and Obese Subjects

Melania Melis, Gianfranca Carta, Stefano Pintus, Paolo Pintus, Carla A. Piras, Elisabetta Murru, Claudia Manca, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sebastiano Banni, and Iole Tomassini Barbarossa (December 2017)

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The multifunctional CD36 scavenger receptor facilitates fatty acid (FA) uptake and oxidation and it has been involved in the pathophysiology related to dysfunctional FA metabolism. The common variant in the CD36 gene, rs1761667 (A/G), whose allele A is characterized by a reduced protein expression, has been associated with taste sensitivity to and preference for fat. These data indicate that the CD36polymorphism, rs1761667, leads to a distinct metabolic pattern in NW and in OB subjects. Therefore, their determination may be crucial in developing personalized therapeutic strategies for ameliorating dyslipidemia and other metabolic disorders.

Impact of Akkermansia muciniphila and the intestinal endocannabinoid system on the metabolic syndrome

Hubert Plovier  (June 2017)

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Obesity and associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health concern worldwide. It is therefore crucial to better understand the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies and to develop new strategies to limit their development. Among the factors involved in obesity, this thesis is focused on the interactions between the intestinal epithelium, the endocannabinoid system and the gut microbiota. The data we obtained give a better understanding of the role of the intestinal endocannabinoid system in the metabolic adaptations to diet-induced obesity. Further, they reinforce our knowledge of the role of the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Finally, they constitute an important step in the evaluation of therapeutic effects of this bacterium as a tool against the development of obesity.

Relationship between Years of Marijuana Use and the Four Main Diagnostic Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome among United States Adults

Barbara A Yankey, Richard Rothenberg, Sheryl Strasser, Kim Ramsey-White, Ike S Okosun  (February 2017)

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Irrespective of the criteria for metabolic syndrome, each year of marijuana use showed increased odds of having metabolic syndrome, hypertension or high oral glucose tolerance test levels. This increased odd is in contrast to most findings in literature. The small, yet consistent increase in odds for hypertension was slightly higher than that observed with cigarette smoking. Recreational marijuana use may be detrimental to cardiovascular health. A standardized definition of marijuana use will be relevant for further investigation

Endocannabinoids and metabolism: past, present and future

Vincent Simon and Daniela Cota  (February 2017)

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The endocannabinoid system (ECS), including cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R), endogenous ligands called endocannabinoids and their related enzymatic machinery, is known to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. Past information generated on the ECS, mainly focused on the involvement of this system in the central nervous system regulation of food intake, while at the same time clinical studies pointed out the therapeutic efficacy of brain penetrant CB1R antagonists like rimonabant for obesity and metabolic disorders.

A peripheral endocannabinoid mechanism contributes to glucocorticoid-mediated metabolic syndrome

Nicole P. Bowles, Ilia N. Karatsoreos, Xiaosong Li, V. Kiran Vemuri, Jodi-Anne Wood, Zhiying Li, Kellie L. K. Tamashiro, Gary J. Schwartz, Alexandros M. Makriyannis, George Kunos, Cecilia J. Hillard, Bruce S. McEwen, and Matthew N. Hill  (December 2014)

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Glucocorticoids are known to promote the development of metabolic syndrome through the modulation of both feeding pathways and metabolic processes; however, the precise mechanisms of these effects are not well-understood. Recent evidence shows that glucocorticoids possess the ability to increase endocannabinoid signaling, which is known to regulate appetite, energy balance, and metabolic processes through both central and peripheral pathways. The aim of this study was to determine the role of endocannabinoid signaling in glucocorticoid-mediated obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Energy balance regulation by endocannabinoids at central and peripheral levels

Quarta C, Mazza R, Obici S, Pasquali R, Pagotto U. (November 2012)

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Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a universal and, perhaps, causative feature of obesity. Central nervous system (CNS) circuits that regulate food intake were initially believed to be the targets for dysregulation. This review summarizes the emerging roles of the ECS in energy balance and discusses future pharmacological approaches for developing peripherally restricted CB1r antagonists.