Effect of Cannabidiol on Medial Temporal, Midbrain, and Striatal Dysfunction in People at Clinical High Risk of Psychosis

Sagnik Bhattacharyya, MBBS, MD, PhDRobin Wilson, MBBS, MRCPsychElizabeth Appiah-Kusi, MSc; et al  (August 2018)

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In this investigation comparing 33 individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis who were part of a double-blind randomized clinical trial and 19 healthy control individuals, a single oral dose of cannabidiol modulated activation in the striatum, medial temporal cortex, and midbrain. In each of these regions, the level of activation following administration of cannabidiol to patients at clinical high risk of psychosis was intermediate between the response in healthy control individuals who did not receive any drug and in patients at clinical high risk receiving placebo.

The endocannabinoid system in mental disorders: Evidence from human brain studies

Inés Ibarra-LecueFuencisla Pilar-CuéllarCarolina MuguruzaEva Florensa-ZanuyÁlvaro DíazLeyre UrigüenElena CastroAngel PazosLuis F. Callado  (July 2018)

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Several studies performed in the last years support the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the etiopathogenesis of different mental disorders. The present review will summarize the latest information on the role of the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders, specifically depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. We will focus on the findings from human brain studies regarding alterations in endocannabinoid levels, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes in patients suffering mental disorders.

The anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol in chronically stressed mice are mediated by the endocannabinoid system: Role of neurogenesis and dendritic remodeling

Manoela V.FogaçaAlline C.CamposLudmila D.CoelhoRonald S.DumanFrancisco S.Guimarães  (March 2018)

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Repeated injections of cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, attenuate the anxiogenic effects induced by Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS). The specific mechanisms remain to be fully understood but seem to involve adult hippocampalneurogenesis and recruitment of endocannabinoids. Here we investigated for the first time if the behavioral and pro-neurogenic effects of CBD administered concomitant the CUS procedure (14 days) are mediated by CB1, CB2 or 5HT1A receptors, as well as CBD effects on dendritic remodeling and on intracellular/synaptic signaling (fatty acid amide hydrolase – FAAH, Akt, GSK3β and the synaptic proteins Synapsin Ia/b, mGluR1 and PSD95).

Voluntary exercise improves cognitive deficits in female dominant-negative DISC1 transgenic mouse model of neuropsychiatric disorders

Hadar Segal-Gavish, Ran Barzilay, Ofri Rimoni and Daniel Offen  (June 2017)

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Voluntary exercise is beneficial in attenuating cognitive deficits observed in a rodent model relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders. The data add a preclinical aspect to the accumulating clinical data supporting the incorporation of physical exercise to patients’ care.

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Mechanism of Cannabis sativa L.

Emmanuel S. Onaivi, Hiroki Ishiguro, Qing-Rong Liu  (May 2017)

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Cannabinoids and many other compounds are constituents in Cannabis sativa L., (cannabaceae) and endocannabinoids (eCBs) are the endogenous marijuana-like substances found in animals and humans. Endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids and marijuana use activate two cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), CB1Rs and CB2Rs that are encoded in human chromosomes 6 and 1 respectively. New understanding in the science of cannabis botany along with medical and biotechnological advances demonstrate that phytocannabinoids and eCBs acting on CBRs are important regulators of various aspects of physiological, behavioral, immunological and metabolic functions.

Endocannabinoids and Lipid Mediators in Brain Functions

Miriam Melis  (2017)

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The science of cannabinoids is 50 years old. These past years provided a remarkable and constant number of breakthroughs, showing that the signaling mediated by endocannabinoids and lipid mediators impacts almost every function of the body. Indeed, this represents a special field of research, which allows tackling the complexity of biological functions, and provides potential therapeutic frameworks for a plethora of diseases. The number of exciting discoveries brought up to the scientific community almost on a daily basis highlights the importance of an updated volume on this topic.

Genetic variation in the endocannabinoid system and response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for child anxiety disorders

Kathryn J. Lester, Jonathan R. I. Coleman, Susanna Roberts, Robert Keers, Gerome Breen, Susan Bögels, Cathy Creswell, Jennifer L. Hudson, Anna McKinnon, Maaike Nauta, Ronald M. Rapee, Silvia Schneider, Wendy K. Silverman, Mikael Thastum, Polly Waite, Gro Janne H. Wergeland,Thalia C. Eley   (June 2016)
Extinction learning is an important mechanism in the successful psychological treatment of anxiety. Individual differences in response and relapse following Cognitive Behavior Therapy may in part be explained by variability in the ease with which fears are extinguished or the vulnerability of these fears to re‐emerge. Given the role of the endocannabinoid system in fear extinction, this study investigates whether genetic variation in the endocannabinoid system explains individual differences in response to CBT.

Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

Marc Fakhoury  (January 2016)

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The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of neuromodulatory lipids, enzymes, and receptors involved in numerous behavioral and physiological processes such as mood, memory, and appetite. Recently, longitudinal and postmortem studies have shown that the ECS might be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. However, despite the large amount of research, our knowledge of the ECS and its implication in this debilitating disorder is still largely limited. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge of the ECS in schizophrenia and presenting some potential antipsychotic compounds that modulate this system.

Endocannabinoid system and synaptic plasticity: implications for emotional responses

María-Paz Viveros, Eva-María Marco, Ricardo Llorente, and Meritxell López-Gallardo  (June 2007)

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Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors show anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors as well as an altered hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activity, whereas enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Genetic and pharmacological approaches also support an involvement of endocannabinoids in extinction of aversive memories. Thus, the endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in the regulation of emotional states. Endocannabinoids have emerged as mediators of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in diverse brain structures. Despite the fact that most of the studies on this field have been performed using in vitro models, endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity might be considered as a plausible candidate underlying some of the diverse physiological functions of the endogenous cannabinoid system, including developmental, affective and cognitive processes.