Anxiety


The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Sari Goldstein Ferber, Dvora Namdar, Danielle Hen-Shoval, Gilad Eger, Hinanit Koltai, Gal Shoval, Liat Shbiro and Aron Weller (September 2019)

Mood disorders are the most prevalent mental conditions encountered in psychiatric practice. Numerous patients suffering from mood disorders present with treatment-resistant forms of depression, co-morbid anxiety, other psychiatric disorders and bipolar disorders. Standardized essential oils (such as that of Lavender officinalis) have been shown to exert clinical efficacy in treating anxiety disorders. As endocannabinoids are suggested to play an important role in major depression, generalized anxiety and bipolar disorders, Cannabis sativa, was suggested for their treatment. The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, modulating many functions. It is involved in mood and related disorders, and its activity may be modified by exogenous cannabinoids. CB1 and CB2 receptors primarily serve as the binding sites for endocannabinoids as well as for phytocannabinoids, produced by cannabis inflorescences. However, ‘cannabis’ is not a single compound product but is known for its complicated molecular profile, producing a plethora of phytocannabinoids alongside a vast array of terpenes. Thus, the “entourage effect” is the suggested positive contribution derived from the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Patient-reported use of medical cannabis for pain, anxiety, and depression symptoms: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Jesse Kosiba, Stephen Maisto and Joseph Ditre (June 2019)

Rationale: Certifications for medical cannabis are generally restricted to a small number of specific medical conditions, yet patients frequently report symptoms of pain, anxiety, and depression as reasons for use. This is a critical concern for researchers, healthcare providers, and policymakers, yet research in this area is currently obstructed by the lack of a focused review or empirical synthesis on patient-reported reasons for medical cannabis use. Conclusion: Findings are discussed with regard to possible explanations for current results, clinical considerations, and areas of future research that are needed to move the field forward.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis Compared to Benzodiazepines in the Treatment of Anxiety

Krystal Piumatti (June 2019)

Anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychological problems today (Rowa & Antony, 2008). Elevated levels of anxiousness not only affect one’s physical health but can diminish one’s day-to-day effectiveness. To date, the primary source of alleviation from anxiety is pharmaceutical medication. One of the most popular forms of pharmaceutical medications prescribed to treat anxiety is benzodiazepines (BDZ). However, BDZ’s are known to be highly addictive, causing negative side-effects and dependence in many patients. In recent years, individuals have been searching for alternative forms of treatment to find relief from their symptoms of anxiety. Overall the study suggested that, as compared to BDZ, cannabis can be a healthier and less harmful alternative form of treatment for adults living with anxiety.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Patterns of Marijuana Use and Health Impact: A Survey Among Older Coloradans

Hillary D. Lum, Kanika Arora, J. Alton Croker, Sara H. Qualls, Melissa Schuchman, Julie Bobitt, Gary Milavetz, and Brian Kaskie (June 2019)

The in-person or online survey was offered to community-dwelling older persons aged above 60 years. We assessed past-year marijuana use including recreational, medical, or both; methods of use; marijuana source; reasons for use; sociodemographic and health factors; and self-reported health. Of 274 respondents (mean age = 72.5 years, 65% women), 45% reported past-year marijuana use. Of these, 54% reported using marijuana both medically and recreationally. Using more than one marijuana method or preparation was common. Reasons for use included arthritis, chronic back pain, anxiety, and depression. Past-year marijuana users reported improved overall health, quality of life, day-to-day functioning, and improvement in pain. Odds of past-year marijuana use decreased with each additional year of age.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Deficient endocannabinoid signaling in the central amygdala contributes to alcohol dependence-related anxiety-like behavior and excessive alcohol intake

Antonia Serrano, Francisco J. Pavon, Matthew W. Buczynski, Joel Schlosburg, Luis A. Natividad, Ilham Y. Polis, David G. Stouffer, Eric P. Zorrilla, Marisa Roberto, Benjamin F. Cravatt, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca and Loren H. Parsons  (April 2018)

Negative emotional states that are associated with excessive alcohol intake, particularly anxiety-like states, have been linked to opponent processes in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), affecting stress-related transmitters and monoamines. This study extends these observations to include endocannabinoid signaling in alcohol-dependent animals.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Role of endocannabinoids in innate fear

Carsten T. Wotjak  (September 2017)

Most of our current knowledge about the neuroanatomical, neurochemical and molecular basis of fear results from Pavlovian fear conditioning. Much less is known about the underpinnings of innate fear responses, which share higher face validity with human anxiety disorders such as agoraphobia, acrophobia and panic attacks. I will introduce our recently established new test paradigms, which allow us to study acrophobic/agoraphobic behavior and the transition between passive and active fear as a function of threat proximity.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Endocannabinoids, Stress, and Negative Affect

Anthony L. Berger, Angela M. Henricks, Matthew N. Hill, Ryan J. McLaughlin  (May 2017)

The stress response is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to both allow an organism to cope with a threat and to restore homeostasis following exposure to a stressor. With respect to this response, preclinical research demonstrates that the endogenous cannabinoid (ECB) system constrains the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and plays a major role in the habituation to stressors.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Don’t Worry, Be Happy: Endocannabinoids and Cannabis at the Intersection of Stress and Reward

Nora D. Volkow, Aidan J. Hampson, and Ruben D. Baler  (January 2017)

Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis. Here we review our current understanding of the ECS and its complex physiological roles.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


The endocannabinoid system in anxiety, fear memory and habituation

S Ruehle, A Aparisi Rey, F Remmers, and B Lutz  (January 2012)

Evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in anxiety and fear has been accumulated, providing leads for novel therapeutic approaches. In anxiety, a bidirectional influence of the ECS has been reported, whereby anxiolytic and anxiogenic responses have been obtained after both increases and decreases of the endocannabinoid tone. The recently developed genetic tools have revealed different but complementary roles for the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor on GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal populations. This dual functionality, together with the plasticity of CB1 receptor expression, particularly on GABAergic neurons, as induced by stressful and rewarding experiences, gives the ECS a unique regulatory capacity for maintaining emotional homeostasis.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.


Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces anxiety-related behavior in mice via an FMRP1-independent mechanism

Jerzy Zieba, Duncan Sinclair, Terri Sebree, Marcel Bonn-Miller, Donna Gutterman, Steven Siegeld and Tim Karl (May 2019)

Fragile X Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder which affects intellectual, social and physical development due to mutation of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The resultant loss of Fragile X mental retardation protein can be modelled by Fmr1 gene knockout (KO) in mice. The current study investigated the behavioural effects of cannabidiol (CBD; a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid) in male Fmr1 KO mice as a preclinical model for therapeutic discovery.

Important Notice

If you proceed to article you will be leaving the CB1 Capital Management website to access a website hosted by a party unrelated to CB1 Capital Management. CB1 Capital Management assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of any of these studies nor does CB1 assume any obligation to update any of these studies based on subsequent research.